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The tribes of India constitute 8.2% of the total population. Our country has the largest number of tribes as compared to any other country. There are a variety of groups of tribes. According to the Anthropological Survey of India, there are 461 tribal communities, out of which 174 were identify as sub-groups. 212 tribes are found in different parts of India. This community is divided based on geographical location, languages, and race.
BASED ON GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION – under this tribe of India are divided into 3 zones.
- North-eastern Zone- tribes from eastern Kashmir, eastern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Assam, Uttar Pradesh falls in this zone. The aka, the Mishmi, the naga, and chulikta comes in this zone.
- Central Zone- tribes from Bihar, Bengal, Southern Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa fall under this zone. The konth, the Santhal, the Gond, the muria, and the baiga come in this zone.
- Southern Zone- Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala fall under this zone. The toda, the chenchu, the Kadar and the koraga comes in this zone.
- From these zones, there is another zone that comes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Jarawa, the Nicobarese, and the Andamanese fall in this zone.
BASED ON LANGUAGE- 3 main groups fall in this classification.
- The Sino-Tibetan- the tribes from the North-Eastern zone comes in this group.
- Austric linguistic group- the tribes of the central zone belongs to this group.
- The Dravidian linguistic group- tribes from the southern zone belongs to this group.
THE BASIS OF RACE- classification of tribes under this category mainly includes.
- The Mongoloid- tribes living in Himalayan regions belong to this group.
- The Australoid- tribes living in central India fall under this group.
- The Negrito- tribes of Andaman Island belongs to this group.